There’s no such thing as a free lunch, and 5G is the same – services running through a 5G Standalone core need to be billed. In 5G Core Networks, the SMF (Session Management Function) reaches out to the CHF (Charging Function) to perform online charging, via the Nchf_ConvergedCharging Service Based Interface (aka reference point). Like […]
A glimpse into the complexities of prepaid billing (Online Charging) Diameter based networks.
A look at how the HSS can update the profile of an already in-use subscription using Insert Subscriber Data Request/Response.
A Bind environment in a Docker container for experimenting and learning ENUM for DNS based Call Routing.
Using DNS to resolve E.164 phone numbers to routable SIP URIs
Chances are if you’re reading this, you’re trying to work out what Telephony Binary-Coded Decimal encoding is. I got you. Again I found myself staring at encoding trying to guess how it worked, reading references that looped into other references, in this case I was encoding MSISDN AVPs in Diameter. How to Encode a number […]
As the number of Private Networks built on LTE and 5G grow, how will PLMN allocation be managed?
A look at tuning your SCTP parameters to detect failures quickly and reduce dropped packets when they happen.
5G introduces Network Slicing, or does it? A look at slicing mechanisms widely used in pre-5G networks.
Getting to know IPfilterRules and the Flow-Description AVP
Short messaging can be anything but simple…
A look at non-IP transport for 5G including Ethernet.
Comparing packet contents with Wireshark and a diff utility
Peculiar padding problem perplexes poor programmer.
How to find a subscriber location within the network.
Australia is a strange country; As a kid I was scared of dogs, and in response, our family got a dog. This year started off with adventures working with ASN.1 encoded data, and after a week of banging my head against the table, I was scared of ASN.1 encoding. But now I love dogs, and […]
A look at SCTP multi-homing in practice.
How SR-IOV and DPDK play into faster performance of Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) for 3GPP core networks.
A look at the Confidentiality Algorithms used in 3GPP Networks, MILENAGE, XOR & Comp128