Categories
Linux Security

Wireguard in Mikrotik RouterOS

Quick intro to setting up Wireguard interfaces in Mirktok’s RouterOS.

Categories
FreeSWITCH Voice over IP

Originating calls in FreeSWITCH

Through fs_cli you can orignate calls from FreeSWITCH. At the CLI you can use the originate command to start a call, this can be used for everything from scheduled wake up calls, outbound call centers, to war dialing. For example, what I’m using: originate sofia/external/[email protected]:5061 61399999995 XML default originate is the command on the FS_CLI […]

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards SDM Security

Some thoughts on NRF Security in 5G Core

A look at attack vectors the NRF opens up in #5G Core networks, and the mitigations recommended by 3GPP.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards SDM

If you like Pina Coladas, and service the control plane – Intro to NRF in 5GC

Looking for Love in the 5G Core?

Are you a lonely UDM from MCC 001 MNC 001, just looking for a connection?

PLMN 901/70, NRF, seeks same.

Let’s look at our matchmaker – The Network Repository Function in 5G Core.

Categories
GSM IMS / VoLTE Mobile Networks

The Surprisingly Complicated World of SMS: Special Characters

A look at how characters are encoded in an SMS.

Categories
Python RF

Forsk Atoll – Importing Antennas

Importing .msi antennas radiation patterns into Atoll

Categories
5G SA EPC LTE Mobile Networks SDM

Backing up and Restoring Open5GS

How to backup and restore Open5Gs config between servers

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks

GTP Extension Headers (PDU session user plane protocol) in 5GC

How GTP is extended in 5G Core Networks to support extra QoS functionality like Reflective QoS and Delay Indicators

Categories
GSM IMS / VoLTE Mobile Networks

The Surprisingly Complicated World of SMS: Concatenated / Multipart SMS

Another deep dive into deceptively simple seeming functions to do with SMS.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks

Framed Routing in 5G

5GC includes native support for framed-routing.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks

Reflective QoS in 5G

A great new feature of #5G Core Networks is Reflective QoS – Where QoS of the traffic coming to a UE is reflected on the QoS coming out.

Categories
History

When moving the telephone exchange is easier than moving the lines within it…

Relocating vast numbers of subscriber lines is something to be avoided. In 1929 Indiana Bell realized they needed a larger telephone exchange (“CO” to use the US term) to meet growing demand, and while there was vacant land around the current building, it wasn’t large enough to build on with the current building slap-dab in […]

Categories
Kamailio Voice over IP

Kamailio Bytes – Using Rtimer to run Jobs

Using the Rtimer module and UAC to be annoying, or very useful.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks

SMS in 5GC

The first SMS was sent in 1993, and all these years later as 5G rolls out, we’re still supporting it.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards

5G Online Charging with the Nchf_ConvergedCharging SBI

There’s no such thing as a free lunch, and 5G is the same – services running through a 5G Standalone core need to be billed. In 5G Core Networks, the SMF (Session Management Function) reaches out to the CHF (Charging Function) to perform online charging, via the Nchf_ConvergedCharging Service Based Interface (aka reference point). Like […]

Categories
EPC Mobile Networks SDM

Jaffa Cakes explain the nuances between Centralized vs Decentralized Online Charging in 3GPP Networks

A look at Centralized vs DeCentralized Online Charging with the aid of sugar.

Categories
Mobile Networks RF

Converting Elevation Data (DEM) for Forsk Atoll

After headaches importing elevation (DEM) data into Forsk Atoll, I found a better mechanism for converting them, I’d been having issues with as soon as the elevation passed 255 meters, resetting to 0 in the PNG as it didn’t understand values beyond this. I was able to open the elevation data in GlobalMapper (You can […]

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks SDM

EIR in 5G Networks (N5g-eir_EquipmentIdentityCheck)

A look at the Equipment Identity Register in 5G Core

Categories
EPC LTE Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards SDM Voice over IP

Basics of EPC/LTE Online Charging (OCS)

A glimpse into the complexities of prepaid billing (Online Charging) Diameter based networks.

Categories
FreeSWITCH Voice over IP

HTTP PUT call recordings from FreeSWITCH

Using mod_httpapi to HTTP POST call recordings to a remote server